Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic process in the human body that results in the making of glucose.
Glucose is a sugar that provides a person with energy from various sources. The sources are mainly amino acids. Amino acids are substances that occur natural in plants and also in animals. The gluconeogenesis pathway begins with a substance called pyruvic acid and as mentioned before, it finishes with the production of glucose. The pyruvic acid is converted to oxaloacetic acid and then into phosphoenolpyruvate. This substance is then converted into phosphoglycerate, then bisphosphoglycerate before being changed into glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate and dihydroxyacetonephosphate. This substance is then converted into fructose-1, 6-Bisphosphate, then fructose-6-Phosphate and glucose-6-Phosphate before finally finishing with the production of glucose.
Why is glucose so important for the function of our body?
The body requires glucose for some of its most important functions. This sugar provides the energy needed to perform certain processes. Examples of such processes are, digestion and cellular respiration. Also, when carbohydrates are eaten, the blood glucose levels rise in our bodies, as a result the body stores this source of enerygy in the liver, and it is known as glycogen. The process of gluconeogenesis is significant not just because it is the energy source for certain organs, but also because it helps stabilize blood glucose levels in the body. The energy gained from gluconeogenesis (glucose) is also the only energy that is used in the brain, the kidney medulla and also the testes.
What is glycolysis?
Glycolysis is the opposite to gluconeogenesis. Glycolysis is the conversion of glucose back in to pyruvic acid. Both of these processes are essential components of the human body’s energy metabolism. Many of the steps of glycolosis are the simple reversal of steps of gluconegenesis, however, glycolosis in contrast, leads to energy gain. Glycolysis can take place in any of the cells in the body, where as gluconeogenesis only takes place in the liver and sometimes the kidney.
What is glycogenesis?
Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis. It responds to hormone control in the human body. This is when glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage purposes. This process is activated during the bodies rest periods following the Cori cycle, in the liver. It is also activated by insulin in response to high glucose levels. The Cori cycle is another name for the lactic acid cycle, where glucose is returned back to the muscle after exercise and is converted back in to energy.